AI Chatbots in Healthcare Examples + Development Guide
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AI Chatbots in Healthcare Examples + Development Guide

Medical Chatbot A Guide for Developing Chatbots in Healthcare

healthcare chatbot use case diagram

Thirty chatbots were embedded within a specific organization’s platform (e.g., Case 1, Clara on the CDC’s website). Embedding a chatbot within a high-traffic platform can enhance its visibility and discoverability and reduce the effort required to engage with it. As shown in Figure 3, the chatbots in our sample varied in their design along a number of attributes. It's recommended to develop an AI chatbot as a distinctive microservice so that it can be easily connected with other software solutions via API. Liliya's expert knowledge in the intricacies of EMR/EHR systems, HIPAA compliance, EDI, and HL7 standards makes a great contribution to Binariks through commitment to our working principles.

Patients can use them to get information about their condition or treatment options or even help them find out more about their insurance coverage. Having an option to scale the support is the first thing any business can ask for including the healthcare industry. Qualitative and quantitative feedback – To gain actionable feedback both quantitative numeric data and contextual qualitative data should be used. One gives you discrete data that you can measure, to know if you are on the right track. Whereas open-ended questions ensure that patients get a chance to talk and give a detailed review. 30% of patients left an appointment because of long wait times, and 20% of patients permanently changed providers for not being serviced fast enough.

For instance, a healthcare chatbot uses AI to evaluate symptoms against a vast medical database, providing patients with potential diagnoses and advice on the next steps. It not only improves patient access to immediate health advice but also helps streamline emergency room visits by filtering non-critical cases. They provide personalized, easy-to-understand information about diseases, treatments, and preventive measures. This continuous education empowers patients to make informed health decisions, promotes preventive care, and encourages a proactive approach to health. Patients can easily book, reschedule, or cancel appointments through a simple, conversational interface.

Develop interfaces that enable the chatbot to access and retrieve relevant information from EHRs. Prioritize interoperability to ensure compatibility with diverse healthcare applications. Implement encryption protocols for secure data transmission and stringent access controls to regulate data access. Regularly update the chatbot based on advancements in medical knowledge to enhance its efficiency.

In addition to providing information, chatbots also play a vital role in contact tracing efforts. By collecting relevant information from users who may have been exposed to the virus, these bots assist in identifying potential hotspots and preventing further spread. Users can report their symptoms or any recent close contacts they may have had through the chatbot interface, enabling health authorities to take swift action.

  • But healthcare chatbots have been on the scene for a long time, and the healthcare industry is projected to see a significant increase in market share within the artificial intelligence sector in the next decade.
  • We categorized these chatbots based on (a) their use case which reflects the public health response activity they supported and (b) their design characteristics.
  • This means that they are incredibly useful in healthcare, transforming the delivery of care and services to be more efficient, effective, and convenient for both patients and healthcare providers.

Customizing healthcare chatbots for different user demographics involves a user-centric design approach. Implement multilingual support and inclusive design features, such as compatibility with assistive technologies. Iteratively refine the chatbot based on user feedback to address potential disparities in user experience. By embracing inclusivity in design and continuous refinement, healthcare chatbots become versatile and cater to diverse user demographics effectively. Long wait times at hospitals or clinics can be frustrating for patients seeking immediate medical attention. With the implementation of chatbot solutions, these delays can be significantly reduced.

Chatbots were also used for scheduling vaccine appointments (1 case).35 The chatbot searches for appointment availability across various locations and automates the appointment scheduling process. This enables more efficient utilization of available vaccines, reduces wait times in vaccine centers, and allows users to easily find available appointments. In the case of Tessa, a wellness chatbot provided harmful recommendations due to errors in the development stage and poor training data. The Physician Compensation Report states that, on average, doctors have to dedicate 15.5 hours weekly to paperwork and administrative tasks. With this in mind, customized AI chatbots are becoming a necessity for today's healthcare businesses. The technology takes on the routine work, allowing physicians to focus more on severe medical cases.

Chatbot use cases

Medisafe empowers users to manage their drug journey — from intricate dosing schedules to monitoring multiple measurements. Additionally, it alerts them if there’s a potential unhealthy interaction between two medications. In addition to answering the patient’s questions, prescriptive chatbots offer actual medical advice based on the information provided by the user. To do that, the application must employ NLP algorithms and have the latest knowledge base to draw insights. These healthcare-focused solutions allow developing robust chatbots faster and reduce compliance and integration risks. Vendors like Orbita also ensure appropriate data security protections are in place to safeguard PHI.

healthcare chatbot use case diagram

Whether it's explaining symptoms, treatment options, or medication instructions, chatbots serve as virtual assistants that ensure patients are well-informed about their medical concerns. AI Chatbots in healthcare have revolutionized the way patients receive support, providing round-the-clock assistance from virtual Chat PG assistants. This virtual assistant is available at any time to address medical concerns and offer personalized guidance, making it easier for patients to have conversations with hospital staff and pharmacies. The convenience and accessibility of chatbots have transformed the physician-patient relationship.

This empowerment enables individuals to make well-informed decisions about their health, contributing to a more health-conscious society. Complex conversational bots use a subclass of machine learning (ML) algorithms we’ve mentioned before — NLP. These chatbots are equipped with the simplest AI algorithms designed to distribute information via pre-set responses. Depending on the specific use case scenario, chatbots possess various levels of intelligence and have datasets of different sizes at their disposal. Chatbot in the healthcare industry has been a great way to overcome the challenge. The most common anthropomorphic feature was gender with 9 chatbots being female, 5 male, and 1 transgender.

You can foun additiona information about ai customer service and artificial intelligence and NLP. The provision of behavior support is another promising area for chatbot use cases. Such use cases are more sophisticated and would require the use of sensor or geolocation data. Most risk assessment and disease surveillance chatbots did not follow-up on symptomatic users. Privacy concerns and regulations may have precluded this since following up requires that chatbots capture identifying information. At the onset of the pandemic little was known about Covid-19 and information and guidelines were in constant flux.

Frequently Asked Questions

In the first stage, a comprehensive needs analysis is conducted to pinpoint particular healthcare domains that stand to gain from a conversational AI solution. Comprehending the obstacles encountered by healthcare providers and patients is crucial for customizing the functionalities of the chatbot. This stage guarantees that the medical chatbot solves practical problems and improves the patient experience.

healthcare chatbot use case diagram

Medication adherence is a crucial challenge in healthcare, and chatbots offer a practical solution. By sending timely reminders and tracking medication schedules, they ensure that patients follow their prescribed treatments effectively. This consistent medication management is particularly crucial for chronic disease management, where adherence to medication is essential for effective treatment. For instance, chatbots can engage patients in their treatment plans, provide educational content, and encourage lifestyle changes, leading to better health outcomes. This interactive model fosters a deeper connection between patients and healthcare services, making patients feel more involved and valued.

Chatbot Ensures Quick Access To Vital Details

An AI chatbot can be integrated with third-party software, enabling them to deliver proper functionality. The technology helped the University Hospitals system used by healthcare providers to screen 29,000 employees for COVID-19 symptoms daily. This enabled swift response to potential cases and eased the burden on clinicians. An example of a healthcare chatbot is Babylon Health, which offers AI-based medical consultations and live video sessions with doctors, enhancing patient access to healthcare services.

Many chatbots are also equipped with natural language processing (NLP) technology, meaning that through careful conversation design, they can understand a range of questions and process healthcare-related queries. They then generate an answer using language that the user is most likely to understand, allowing users to have a smooth, natural-sounding interaction with the bot. Ensuring compliance with healthcare chatbots involves a meticulous understanding of industry regulations, such as HIPAA. Implement robust encryption, secure authentication mechanisms, and access controls to safeguard patient data.

A chatbot can monitor available slots and manage patient meetings with doctors and nurses with a click. As for healthcare chatbot examples, Kyruus assists users in scheduling appointments with medical professionals. Many healthcare service providers are transforming FAQs by incorporating an interactive healthcare chatbot to respond to users’ general questions. It can ask users a series of questions about their symptoms and provide preliminary assessments or suggestions based on the information provided. It is suitable to deliver general healthcare knowledge, including information about medical conditions, medications, treatment options, and preventive measures. Besides, it can collect and analyze data from wearable devices or other sources to monitor users’ health parameters, such as heart rate or blood pressure, and provide relevant feedback or alerts.

It can integrate into any patient-facing platform to automatically evaluate symptoms and intake information. When you are ready to invest in conversational AI, you can identify the top vendors using our data-rich vendor list on voice AI or chatbot platforms. Quality assurance specialists should evaluate the chatbot's responses across different scenarios. Create user interfaces for the chatbot if you plan to use it as a distinctive application. 47.5% of the healthcare companies in the US already use AI in their processes, saving 5-10% of spending. Being a customer service adherent, her goal is to show that organizations can use customer experience as a competitive advantage and win customer loyalty.

Our experience developing Angular-based solutions has helped organizations across various industries, including healthcare, achieve remarkable results. Chatbots are improving businesses by offering a multitude of benefits for both users and workers. Check out this next article to find out more about how to choose the best healthcare chatbot one for your clinic or practice. Evolving into versatile educational instruments, chatbots deliver accurate and relevant health information to patients.

Chatbots can handle routine inquiries, appointment scheduling, and basic triage, freeing up healthcare professionals' time to focus on more critical tasks. This not only reduces operational expenses but also increases overall efficiency within healthcare facilities. As we navigate the evolving landscape of healthcare, the integration of AI-driven chatbots marks a significant leap forward.

The cost of building a medical chatbot varies based on complexity and features, with factors like development time and functionalities influencing the overall expense. Outbound bots offer an additional avenue, reaching out to patients through preferred channels like SMS or WhatsApp at their chosen time. This proactive approach enables patients to share detailed feedback, which is especially beneficial when introducing new doctors or seeking improvement suggestions. An example of this implementation is Zydus Hospitals, one of India's largest multispecialty hospital chains, which successfully utilized a multilingual chatbot for appointment scheduling. This approach not only increased overall appointments but also contributed to revenue growth.

  • This proactive approach minimizes the risk of missed doses, fostering a higher level of patient compliance with prescribed treatment plans.
  • The platform automates care along the way by helping to identify high-risk patients and placing them in touch with a healthcare provider via phone call, telehealth, e-visit, or in-person appointment.
  • The use of chatbots in healthcare is one of these technological developments that has gained popularity.
  • Additional use cases, more sophisticated chatbot designs, and opportunities for synergies in chatbot development should be explored.
  • This highlights a potential tension between privacy and functionality, and balancing these could benefit use cases where follow-up or proactive contact may be useful.

The public had many questions and concerns regarding the virus which overwhelmed health providers and helplines. We were able to assess the type of information provided for 37 of the 42 information dissemination chatbots (see Table 2 in Appendix 1). Based on the information they provided, we identified 7 use cases for information dissemination (see Figure 2). How do we deal with all these issues when developing a clinical chatbot for healthcare?

Step 6: Compliance with Healthcare Regulations

Healthcare chatbots help patients avoid unnecessary tests and costly treatments, guiding them through the system more effectively. Hospitals can use chatbots for follow-up interactions, ensuring adherence to treatment plans and minimizing readmissions. Only limited by network connection and server performance, bots respond to requests instantaneously. And since chatbots are often based on SaaS (software as a service) packages from major players like AWS, there’s no shortage of resources. Patients who are not engaged in their healthcare are three times as likely to have unmet medical needs and twice as likely to delay medical care than more motivated patients. Maybe for that reason, omnichannel engagement pharma is gaining more traction now than ever before.

We excluded 9 cases from our sample since our analysis revealed that they were not chatbots. We identified 3 new chatbots that focused on vaccination, bringing our final sample to 61 chatbots and resulting in 1 additional use-case category and 1 new use case. We searched PubMed/MEDLINE, Web of Knowledge, and Google Scholar in October 2020 and performed a follow-up search in July 2021. Chatbots, their use cases, and chatbot design characteristics were extracted from the articles and information from other sources and by accessing those chatbots that were publicly accessible. To identify chatbot use cases deployed for public health response activities during the Covid-19 pandemic.

We will examine various use cases, including patient engagement, triage, data analysis, and telehealth support. Additionally, the article will highlight leading healthcare chatbots in the market and provide insights into building a healthcare chatbot using’s platform. Healthcare chatbots streamline the appointment scheduling process, providing patients with a convenient way to book, reschedule, or cancel appointments. This not only optimizes time for healthcare providers but also elevates the overall patient experience. The overall functionality, dependability, and user experience of chatbots in the healthcare industry are improved by adding these extra steps to the development and deployment process.

Patients no longer need to wait on hold or navigate complex websites to access their medical records or test results. With just a few clicks on a chatbot platform, patients can conveniently retrieve all relevant information related to their health. This streamlined process saves time and effort for both patients and healthcare providers alike.

This frees up healthcare and public health workers to deal with more critical and complicated tasks and addresses capacity bottlenecks and constraints. But what healthcare chatbots can do is free up valuable time for medical personnel and administration staff to focus on the most complex and pressing healthcare needs. They can also provide an efficient and more cost-effective way for healthcare providers to interact with patients at scale. Technology and the use of data has changed how we do things, and it’s no different in healthcare. The rise of chatbots has led to an increased demand for these automated programs that can help customers, i.e., patients with their medical needs and health-related questions.

healthcare chatbot use case diagram

The CodeIT team has solutions to tackle the major text bot drawbacks, perfect for businesses like yours. We adhere to HIPAA and GDPR compliance standards to ensure data security and privacy. Our developers can create any conversational agent you need because that's what custom healthcare chatbot development is all about.

Moreover, regular check-ins from chatbots remind patients about medication schedules and follow-up appointments, leading to improved treatment adherence. In addition to collecting patient data and feedback, chatbots play a pivotal role in conducting automated surveys. These surveys gather valuable insights into various aspects of healthcare delivery such as service quality, satisfaction levels, and treatment outcomes. The ability to analyze large volumes of survey responses allows healthcare organizations to identify trends, make informed decisions, and implement targeted interventions for continuous improvement. The impact of AI chatbots in healthcare, especially in hospitals, cannot be overstated. By bridging the gap between patients and physicians, they help individuals take control of their health while ensuring timely access to information about medical procedures.

Ensure compatibility with remote monitoring devices for seamless data integration. Regularly update the chatbot’s knowledge base to incorporate advancements in remote monitoring technologies. By prioritizing real-time data collection and continuous learning, the chatbot facilitates remote patient monitoring without compromising accuracy. Designing chatbot interfaces for medical information involves training the Natural Language Processing (NLP) model on medical terminology. Implement dynamic conversation pathways for personalized responses, enhancing accuracy.

Employ robust encryption and secure authentication mechanisms to safeguard data transmission. Regularly update and patch security vulnerabilities, and integrate access controls to manage data access. Comply with healthcare interoperability standards like HL7 and FHIR for seamless communication with Electronic Medical Records (EMRs).

Two chatbots direct users to another chatbot for a more detailed screening (Cases 8 and 29). Although not claiming to diagnose, a few chatbots also try to eliminate differential diagnoses by asking more detailed questions (e.g., Case 41). The use of chatbots in healthcare helps improve the performance of medical staff by enabling automation.

To illustrate further how beneficial chatbots can be in streamlining appointment scheduling in health systems, let's consider a case study. In a busy medical practice, Dr. Smith's team was overwhelmed with numerous phone calls and manual paperwork related to appointments in their health system. In the realm of post-operative care, AI chatbots help enhance overall recovery processes by using AI technology to facilitate remote monitoring of patients' vital signs. By integrating with wearable devices or smart home technologies, these chatbots collect real-time data on metrics like heart rate, blood pressure, or glucose levels.

Chatbots will play a crucial role in managing mental health issues and behavioral disorders. With advancements in AI and NLP, these chatbots will provide empathetic support and effective management strategies, helping patients navigate complex mental health challenges with greater ease and discretion. By using NLP technology, medical chatbots can identify healthcare-related keywords in sentences and return useful advice for the patient. With healthcare chatbots, a healthcare provider can quickly respond to patient queries and provide follow-up care, improving healthcare outcomes.

In addition, by handling initial patient interactions, chatbots can reduce the number of unnecessary in-person visits, further saving costs. Healthcare chatbots revolutionize patient interaction by providing a platform for continuous and personalized communication. These digital assistants offer more than just information; they create an interactive environment where patients can actively participate in their healthcare journey. A healthcare chatbot is a computer program designed to interact with users, providing information and assistance in the healthcare domain. The introduction of chatbots has significantly improved healthcare, especially in providing patients with the information they seek.

Going in person to speak to someone can also be an insurmountable hurdle for those who feel uncomfortable discussing their mental health needs in person. Babylon Health is an app company partnered with the UK’s NHS that provides a quick symptom checker, allowing users to get information about treatment and services available to them at any time. Not only can customers book through the chatbot, but they can also ask questions about the tests that will be conducted and get answers in real time. Medical chatbot aid in efficient triage, evaluating symptom severity, directing patients to appropriate levels of care, and prioritizing urgent cases. It is critical to incorporate multilingual support and guarantee accessibility in order to serve a varied patient population. By taking this step, the chatbot’s reach is increased and it can effectively communicate with users who might prefer a different language or who need accessibility features.

15 Generative AI Enterprise Use Cases - Artificial Intelligence - eWeek

15 Generative AI Enterprise Use Cases - Artificial Intelligence.

Posted: Mon, 15 Jan 2024 08:00:00 GMT [source]

According to research by Accenture, scaling healthcare chatbots could result in over $3 billion in annual cost savings for the US healthcare system alone by 2023. Another study found that 70% of healthcare organizations are currently piloting or planning to pilot chatbots. With so many algorithms and tools around, knowing the different types of chatbots in healthcare is key. This will help you to choose the right tools or find the right experts to build a chat agent that suits your users' needs.

It assesses the current emotional state of the user by asking questions, then suggests activities and exercises for them to do. Chatbots and conversational AI have been widely implemented in the mental health field as a cheaper and more accessible option for healthcare consumers. The QliqSOFT chatbot provides patients with care information and guidelines for recovery, allowing them to access information and ask questions at any time. Tars offers clinics and diagnostic centers a smoother alternative to the traditional contact form, collecting patient information for healthcare facilities through their chatbots.

AI Chatbots have revolutionized the healthcare industry by offering a multitude of benefits that contribute to improving efficiency and reducing costs. These intelligent virtual assistants automate various administrative tasks, allowing health systems, hospitals, and medical professionals to focus more on providing quality care to patients. During COVID, chatbots aided in patient triage by guiding them to useful information, directing them about how to receive help, and assisting them to find vaccination locations. A chatbot can also help patients to shortlist relevant doctors/physicians and schedule an appointment. One response to these issues involved the deployment of chatbots as a scalable, easy to use, quick to deploy, social-distanced solution.

This means that they are incredibly useful in healthcare, transforming the delivery of care and services to be more efficient, effective, and convenient for both patients and healthcare providers. One of the best use cases for chatbots in healthcare is automating prescription refills. Most doctors’ offices are overburdened with paperwork, so many patients have healthcare chatbot use case diagram to wait weeks before they can get their prescriptions filled, thereby wasting precious time. The chatbot can do this instead, checking with each pharmacy to see if the prescription has been filled, then sending an alert when it needs to be picked up or delivered. Many customers prefer making appointments online over calling a clinic or hospital directly.

He advised businesses on their enterprise software, automation, cloud, AI / ML and other technology related decisions at McKinsey & Company and Altman Solon for more than a decade. He has also led commercial growth of deep tech company Hypatos that reached a 7 digit annual recurring revenue and a 9 digit valuation from 0 within 2 years. Cem's work in Hypatos was covered by leading technology publications like TechCrunch and Business Insider. He graduated from Bogazici University as a computer engineer and holds an MBA from Columbia Business School. Healthcare chatbot diagnoses rely on artificial intelligence algorithms that continuously learn from vast amounts of data. Only 3 chatbots were designed to initiate follow-up (Japan’s Prefecture Line chatbots (e.g., COOPERA) and CareCall), or recurring conversation (Alexa—My day for seniors skill) (Cases 34, 51, and 29).

These include 33 chatbots that conversed in 45 languages other than (or in addition to) English. Tables 1 and ​and22 in Appendix 1 provide background information on each chatbot, its use cases, and design features. References to case numbers below refer to the corresponding chatbots in Appendix 1.

This can help reduce wait times at busy clinics or hospitals and reduce the number of phone calls that doctors have to make to patients who have questions about their health. In recent years, the healthcare landscape has witnessed a transformative integration of technology, with medical chatbots at the forefront of this evolution. Medical chatbots also referred to as health bots or medical AI chatbots, have become instrumental in reshaping patient engagement and accessibility within the healthcare industry. Hence, chatbots in healthcare are reshaping patient interactions and accessibility. Acropolium provides healthcare bot development services for telemedicine, mental health support, or insurance processing.

A conversational bot can examine the patient's symptoms and offer potential diagnoses. This also helps medical professionals stay updated about any changes in patient symptoms. This bodes well for patients with long-term illnesses like diabetes or heart disease symptoms. They collect preliminary information, schedule virtual appointments, and facilitate doctor-patient communication. In the domain of mental health, chatbots like Woebot use CBT techniques to offer emotional support and mental health exercises. These chatbots engage users in therapeutic conversations, helping them cope with anxiety, depression, and stress.

Chatbots also support doctors in managing charges and the pre-authorization process. Such an interactive AI technology can automate various healthcare-related activities. A medical bot is created with the help of machine learning and large language models (LLMs). Yes, there are mental health chatbots like Youper and Woebot, which use AI and psychological techniques to provide emotional support and therapeutic exercises, helping users manage mental health challenges.

HL7 Integration in Healthcare: Enhancing Systems & Patient Care - Appinventiv

HL7 Integration in Healthcare: Enhancing Systems & Patient Care.

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The industry will flourish as more messaging bots become deeply integrated into healthcare systems. Healthcare professionals can now efficiently manage resources and prioritize clinical cases using artificial intelligence chatbots. The technology helps clinicians categorize patients depending on how severe their conditions are. A medical bot assesses users through questions to define patients who require urgent treatment. It then guides those with the most severe symptoms to seek responsible doctors or medical specialists. Patients can interact with the chatbot to find the most convenient appointment times, thus reducing the administrative burden on hospital staff.

With the constantly evolving nature of the virus, having access to accurate and timely information is crucial. Chatbots can provide users with a list of nearby testing centers or vaccination sites based on their location, ensuring they have easy access to these important resources. Moreover, chatbots simplify appointment scheduling by allowing patients to book appointments online or through messaging platforms. This not only reduces administrative overhead but also ensures that physicians' schedules are optimized efficiently. As a result, hospitals can maximize their resources by effectively managing patient flow while reducing waiting times. One of the key advantages of using chatbots for scheduling appointments is their ability to integrate with existing systems.

Chatbots assist doctors by automating routine tasks, such as appointment scheduling and patient inquiries, freeing up their time for more complex medical cases. They also provide doctors with quick access to patient data and history, enabling more informed and efficient decision-making. They provide preliminary assessments, answer general health queries, and facilitate virtual consultations. This support is especially important in remote areas or for patients who have difficulty accessing traditional healthcare services, making healthcare more inclusive and accessible.

As conversational AI continues advancing, measurable benefits like these will accelerate chatbot adoption exponentially. By thoughtfully implementing chatbots aligned to organizational goals, healthcare providers can elevate patient experiences and clinical outcomes to new heights. The transformative power of AI to augment clinicians and improve healthcare access is here – the time to implement chatbots is now.

Patient preferences may vary, but many individuals appreciate the convenience and immediacy offered by healthcare chatbots. However, it is important to maintain a balance between automated assistance and human interaction for more complex medical situations. Healthcare chatbots have been instrumental in addressing public health concerns, especially during the COVID-19 pandemic.

healthcare chatbot use case diagram

By accessing a vast pool of medical resources, chatbots can provide users with comprehensive information on various health topics. This continuous monitoring allows healthcare providers to detect any deviations from normal values promptly. In case of alarming changes, the chatbot can trigger alerts to both patients and healthcare professionals, ensuring timely intervention and reducing the risk of complications. AI Chatbots also play a crucial role in the healthcare industry by offering mental health support. They provide resources and guide users through coping strategies, creating a safe space for individuals to discuss their emotional well-being anonymously. Chatbots may even collect and process co-payments to further streamline the process.

Chatbots collect minimal user data, often limited to necessary medical information, and it is used solely to enhance the user experience and provide personalized assistance. Contact us today to discuss your vision and explore how custom chatbots can transform your business. This section provides a step-by-step guide to building your medical chatbot, outlining the crucial steps and considerations at each stage. Following these steps and carefully evaluating your specific needs, you can create a valuable tool for your company .

Chatbots were designed either for the general population (35 cases) or for a specific population (17 cases). The general population audience could be as broad as the world (e.g., the WHO chatbot) or a country (e.g., the CDC chatbot in the United States). Many state or regional governments also developed their own chatbots; for instance, Spain has 9 different chatbots for different regions. We systematically searched the literature to identify chatbots deployed in the Covid-19 public health response. We gathered information on these to (a) derive a comprehensive set of chatbot public health response use cases and (b) identify their design characteristics. They can automate bothersome and time-consuming tasks, like appointment scheduling or consultation.

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